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Has India kicked off a trade war withChina? Here are 5 signs

印度与中国的贸易战已经打响^?有5大信号



The Doklam conflict between India and China may not have triggered a border warbut it might have launched a trade war. Or so it seems. India recently putrestrictions on the import of Chinese goods. Many of these restrictions arebeing seen in the Doklam context. 

印度和中国之间的洞朗对峙可能没有引发一场边境战争^&,却但可能已经引发了一场贸易战争?;蛘呖雌鹄慈绱?。最近印度限制进口中国商品。许多限制措施看起来都与洞朗对峙有千丝万缕的联系。

These restrictions can at best be annoyingfor China since its exports to India account for only 2 per cent of its totalexports. Yet, these restrictions will serve as a warning to China, indicatingIndia's hardened posture. The Doklam conflict has raised India's apprehensionsabout China's 背后.

由于中国对印出口仅占其出口总额的2%,这些限制措施最多只能引起中国的皮肉之痒*&。但这些限制措施仍可成为一种对中国的警告,以表明印度的强硬姿态。洞朗对峙引发了印度对中国背后意图的担忧&。

Below are a few items/sectors where India has restricted Chinese imports. 

以下是印度限制从中国进口的几个类别/领域^。

Toys

玩具

Toy imports from China have dropped to less than a half, according to industryestimates, since the government introduced tough quality criteria and mandatedcertification of compliance by accredited agencies from September 1.

由于印度政府自9月1日起引入了严格的质量标准,并要求必须具有认证机构的承诺证明&,据业内估计,从中国进口的玩具数量已经下降超过一半。

A notification issued by Director General of Foreign Trade on September 1prescribed criteria for physical and mechanical properties, chemical content,flammability, and testing for indoor and outdoor toys for both electrically andmechanically operated ones. The notification said import of toys would bepermitted freely only if the manufacturer abided by the Bureau of IndianStandards benchmarks. Chinese toys account for an estimated 70 per cent ofIndia’s Rs 5,000-crore toy industry.

一份由印度对外贸易部9月1日发布的通知规定了室内及户外的电动玩具以及其他玩具的物理性质*、化学性质&、化学成分&、可燃性标准和相关测试。通知要求只有在制造商符合印度标准局制定的行业标准的情况下^,玩具进口才能被批准。在印度总计500亿卢比的玩具产业中&,中国玩具据约占70%。

Tempered glass

钢化玻璃

India has imposed anti-dumping duty also on tempered glass, which is used forprotecting mobile phone screens, from China for five years to protect thedomestic industry from below-cost imports. Investigations by the DirectorateGeneral of Anti-Dumping and Allied Duties (DGAD) had found that tempered glasshad been exported to India from China below its associated normal value. Also,it concluded that domestic industry had suffered material injury which wascaused by the dumped imports of the goods from China.

印度对从中国进口的用于盺;な只聊坏母只Aб惨颜魇樟?年的反倾销税*,以?;け竟得庠獾统杀窘诘募费?。联合关税与反倾销总局(DGAD)的调查表明,中国向印度出口的钢化玻璃低于相关的正常价格。同时也得出结论*,国内产业遭受到了由中国货物倾销造成的重大损失&&。

Tyres

轮胎

Anti-dumping duty has been imposed on import of certain type of radial tyresused in buses and trucks to protect domestic manufacturers from below costshipments from China for five years. Automotive Tyre Manufacturers’ Associationhad filed an application on behalf of the domestic producers and had demandedinvestigation in dumping of tyres. The government said the domestic industryhad suffered material injury on account of the imports from China. It foundthat the tyres had been exported to India from the subject country “belownormal value”.

一些特定种类的客运及货运子午线轮胎也已被征收了5年的关税,以?;す谄笠得庠獾统杀局泄诓返募费?。汽车轮胎制造商协会已经代表国内生产商提交了一份申请,要求调查轮胎倾销。政府表示*,由于从中国的进口^*,国内产业已经遭受了重大损失。政府发现外国出口到印度的轮胎“低于其正常价值”&。

Power 

电力

Chinese firms are on target in the power sector too. The Central ElectricityAuthority (CEA) recently prepared a report in which it set new conditions forfirms bidding for power transmission contracts, tipping the scales in favour oflocal companies. Power sector is dominated by Chinese firms such as HarbinElectric, Dongfang Electronics, Shanghai Electric and Sifang Automation whichsupply equipment or manage power distribution.

电力行业的中国企业同样是制裁目标*。中央电力局(CEA)最近的一份报告为竞标电力输送合同的公司设立了新的条款&&,使得竞争天平向本地企业倾斜。电力行业目前由提供设备或管理电力分配的中国企业所统治^,比如哈尔滨电气集团公司^、中国东方电气集团有限公司、上海电气集团公司和北京四方继保自动化公司*。

A high-level panel will look at possible checks on foreign firms investing inthe Indian power sector, a move aimed at preventing cyber attacks on theelectricity grid. This comes about two months after the eastern electricitygrid suffered a malware attack, allegedly from China.

一个高级别检查组将检查在印度电力行业投资的外国企业*^^,此举旨在防止针对电网的网络攻击。该行动发起于东部电网遭受恶意软件攻击的大约两个月后*,据称中国发动了这次攻击^。

Overseas firms eyeing investments in power plants in the country may have toundergo security clearances and may be mandated to employ majority Indiannationals including at top managerial positions, a senior government officialsaid. The panel will consider the recommendations that CEA made.

一位政府高级官员说^,海外公司在印度寻求投资建设电厂可能必须要接受安全调查,并可能被要求包括高级管理职位在内必须主要雇佣印度人。该检查组将考虑中央电力局的建议。

Telecom

通信

In August, the Ministry of Electronics and IT directed 21 smartphone makers,most of which are Chinese, to inform it about the procedures and processes theyfollow to ensure the security of mobile phones sold in India, following reportsof data leakage and theft The government officials didn’t directly link thegovernment move to India’s latest border tensions with China, but industryinsiders noted the move came amid continuing standoff between the two nations’armies at Dokalam. Also, there is rising concern over imports of IT and telecomproducts from China on the grounds that much of it may be used to gain unlawfulaccess to critical information with many Chinese manufacturers having theirservers in their home country.

紧随有关信息泄漏和窃取的报告出台之后,今年8月&,电子工业与信息技术部对21家智能手机制造商发出指示^&,告知了他们应当遵守的程序和过程*&*,以确保在印度销售的手机的安全*&。这些制造商大部分都来自中国。政府官方没有直接将上述行动与印度和中国最近的边境紧张局势联系起来&,但业内人士指出,此举正值两国军队在洞朗展开持续对峙^。此外*^,由于从中国进口的IT与通信设备其中国制造商都将服务器放在中国国内&,关于这些设备有可能会因此非法获取关键信息的担忧也日益加重^。